Tax Deduction at Source
Learn the basics of TDS















Overview of TDS

TDS is one of the modes of collection of taxes, by which a certain percentage of amounts are deducted by a person at the time of making/crediting certain specific nature of payment to the other person and deducted amount is remitted to the Government account.  It is similar to pay as you earn scheme also known as withholding Tax in many other countries, one of the countries is USA.  The concept of TDS envisages the principle of pay as you earn.  It facilitates sharing of responsibility of tax collection between the deductor and the  tax administration.  It ensures regular inflow  of cash resources to the Govt.  It acts as a powerful instrument to prevent tax evasion as well as expands the tax net.

Who shall deduct tax at source?

Every person responsible for making payment of nature covered by TDS provisions of Income Tax Act shall be responsible to deduct tax.

However in case of individual and HUF only if the turnover or professional receipt exceeds sum of Rs. 40 lakh or Rs. 10 lakh respectively he is required to deduct tax at source from payments made under sec. 194A, 194C, 194H, 194I and 194J.

These persons are mainly:

- Principal Officer of a company for TDS Purpose including the employer in case of private employment or an employee making payment on behalf of the employer

- DDO (Drawing & Disbursing Officer) In case of Govt. Office any officer designated as such.

- In the case of "interest on securities" other than payments made by or on behalf of the Central govt. or the State Government, it is the local authority, corporation or company, including the Principal Officer thereof.

Such person is called Deductor while the person from whom the tax is deducted is called Deductee.

Tax must be deducted at the time of payment in cash or cheque or credit to the payee's account whichever is earlier. Credit to payable account or suspense account is also considered to be credit to payee's account and TDS must be made at the time of such credit.


What a deductor must do?

1Obtain TAN

Every deductor is required to obtain a unique identification number called TAN (Tax Deduction Account Number) which is a ten digit alpha numeric number e.g.DELH90468K.

This number has to be quoted by the deductor in every correspondence related to Income Tax matters concerning TDS.

2He/She should obtain PAN of the deductee.

3He/She should deduct the tax at correct rate.

4The tax deducted has to be deposited in the designated banks within specified time (Govt. deductors shall transfer the tax deducted through book entry in Government account).This is detailed below:

▬ By or on behalf of the Government  : on the same day,

▬ By or on behalf of any other person : before the 7th of the following month.

However, if the amount is credited in the books on 31st March then the tax should be remitted by 31st May.

Note: w.e.f., 01.04.2008 electronic payment of tax has to be done by all corporate assessees and all persons whose cases are auditable.

5Use challan no. 281 for depositing TDS amount.

6File statements of tax deduction in the prescribed time.

The due dates for filing of TDS/TCS statement and form no. 27Q are :

15th of July for Quarter 1,

15th of October for Quarter 2,

15th of January for Quarter 3 and

15th June for last Quarter however for TCS statements the due date is 30th April.

All Tax deductors have to compulsorily file Quarterly TDS returns through computer media with Tax information network- facilitation Counters (TIN-FC) appointed by NSDL duly supported by a declaration in form no. 27A in paper.

7Use correct form to file TDS/TCS Returns. They are:

Form 24Q        for salaries

Form 26Q        for non salaries

Form 27Q        for payment to NR/NRI

Form 27EQ      for TCS

Form 27A/27B Control sheet for electronic TDS/TCS

 It may be noted that the following persons have to compulsorily file e-TDS /e-TCS statements

·All government offices/Departments

·All companies /corporations

·All persons whose cases are auditable

·All persons whose TDS statements contain more than 50 deductees.

Dos & Don'ts for filing TDS Returns


·Ensure that TDS return is filed with same TAN against which TDS payment has been made & TDS certificate is issued.

·Ensure that correct challan particulars including CIN and amount is mentioned in TDS challan.

·Correct PAN of the deductee is mentioned.

·Correct section is quoted against each deductee record.

·Correct rate is quoted against each deductee record.

·File correction statement as soon as discrepancy is noticed

·Retain the original FVU file to enable future corrections

·Make use of free of charge RPU provided through

·Download details of challan from challan status enquiry (TAN based view) from

·Registration for TAN enables you to avail additional facilities from Tax Information System.

·Always verify status of TDS returns from Tin NSDL to ascertain the discrepancy, if any, and/or whether your TDS return stands accepted or rejected by the system.


·Don't file late returns as it affects deductee tax credit

·Don't quote incorrect TAN vis-à-vis TDS payments

 The process of filing of e-TDS /e-TCS returns is available in detail at following websites or

8. Issue TDS certificates as per existing procedure and within the time prescribed as stated below:

The certificate should be issued within one month from the end of the month in which the income is credited however for credit entries made on 31st March, due date is 7th June,  except in the case of salary where the certificate has to be issued by 30th of April of the following financial year in which the income was credited.

9. File e-TBAF (In case of Govt. DDO's where TDS is credited in Central Govt. account through book adjustments)



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Every deductor is required to obtain a unique identification number called TAN (Tax Deduction Account Number) which is a ten digit alpha numeric number. This number has to be quoted by the deductor in every correspondence related to Income Tax matters.

Format of TAN:

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Procedure for getting TAN : 

It can be obtained by filing an application in form no. 49B to any of the TIN facilitation Centres (TIN-FC) namely NSDL. Addresses of the TIN-FC as well as the forms can be downloaded from the website or The fee for processing TAN application is Rs.  60/-. This can be paid by:

▬   Cash at TIN-FC counter

▬   Demand draft or

▬   Cheque or

▬   Credit card

The demand draft/ cheque shall be in favour of 'NSDL-TIN'.

TAN no will be communicated to the deductor by NSDL.


Nature of payments attracting TDS and rates thereon:


DDOs must calculate the tax payable by an employee for the year and start deducting tax at average rate. The term salary includes wages, any annuity or pension, gratuity, any fees, commission, perquisites or profits in lieu of or in addition to any salary or wages. (these payments are covered under sec. 192 of the Income Tax Act 1961).The income from salaries is required to be computed on estimated basis  at the beginning of each financial year, taking into account salaries or remuneration paid or allowed. Income Tax payable on the basis of such estimated salary income should be deducted at the rate applicable to the corresponding slab of income* every month in equal installments subject to adjustments depending upon tax saving investments made by the deductee.

When an employee is working with more than one employer simultaneously or has changed employment from one employer to another during the relevant financial year, the employer will deduct tax on considering the aggregate salary from all sources and tax deducted thereon, if any.   

Interest on securities/Dividends/Interest/Insurance commission-

The tax has to deducted @20%* for domestic companies and 10%* for others with some basic exemption limits. In the case of interest if the amount of interest is upto Rs. 5000/- during a financial year however, in the case of interest paid by a banking company, Co-operative society engaged in the business of banking and a public company engaged in the financing or construction of residential houses in India. This limit is Rs. 10000/-(these payments are covered under sec. 193, 194, 194A& 194D of the Income Tax Act 1961 resp.).

Winning from lottery, puzzle or games of any sort-

The DDO/deductor must deduct tax @30%* on any payment above Rs. 5000/-(these payments are covered under sec. 194B of the Income Tax Act 1961).

Winning from horse races-

The DDO/deductor must deduct tax @30%* on any payment above Rs. 2500/-(these payments are covered under sec. 194BB of the Income Tax Act 1961).

Contracts(including work land labour contract)  -

The tax has to be deducted @2%* on contract payments 1%* for subcontract and Advertisement contract payments. The tax is required to be deducted if a single payment exceeds Rs. 20000/- or if the aggregate payments exceed Rs. 50000/- per annum (these payments are covered under sec. 194C of the Income Tax Act 1961).

Insurance commission-

Any person responsible for paying to a resident any remuneration or reward whether by way of commission or other wise, for procuring insurance business is required to deduct tax @ 20%* for companies and 10% for other person if the amount credited or paid is more than Rs. 5000/- in a financial year.

Payments to Non residents sportsmen or sport association.-

The tax has to be deducted @10%* on making any payment. /-(these payments are covered under sec. 194E of the Income Tax Act 1961).

Commission on sale of lottery tickets and on brokerage-.

The tax has to be deducted @10%* with some basic exemption /-(these payments are covered under sec. 194G & 194H of the Income Tax Act 1961).


Any amount paid as rent above Rs. 120000/- per year will attract TDS provisions @ 15%* for Individual & HUF and 20%* for others. (TDS will be 2% for the use of any machinery or plant or equipment) /-(these payments are covered under sec. 194I of the Income Tax Act 1961).

Fees for professional or technical services/royalty/Income on units of mutual funds/compensation on acquisition of certain immovable assets-

The tax has to be deducted @10%* with some basic exemption limits /-(these payments are covered under sec. 194J  194K& 194LA of the Income Tax Act 1961).

Payment on Acquisition of certain immovable property-

Any amount above Rs. 100000/- paid as compensation or enhanced compensation on account of compulsory acquisition under any law in force, of any immovable property other than agricultural land will attract TDS provisions @ 10%*

(*Plus surcharge and cess as applicable)


Non deduction or deduction at lower rate in certain situations

No Tax has to be deducted for the payment made to Government, RBI, Corporation whose income is exempt from tax or mutual fund specified u/sec. 10(23D). Also in case where deductee produces a non deduction certificate or lower deduction certificate u/sec. 197 of the Income Tax Act 1961.

Self declaration in Forms 15F, 15G and 15H can be filed by the deductee if his income doesn't exceed the amount chargeable to tax. This self declaration can be filed for dividends, interest and mutual fund income only. In these cases no tax has to be deducted. However the tax deductor is required to furnish copies of these self declaration to the concerned CCIT and Assessing Officer as per the rules.


Dos and Donts for Depositing Tax


All details of the payment as uploaded by the banks are available at the NSDL- TIN website under the link "challans status enquiry".  Deductor should verify the details for ensuring the credit for payments.

Through the TAN Based View details of all challans deposited in the banks for a given TAN during a specified period can be viewed. 





(The challan data file can also be downloaded for verification of challan data entered at the time of preparation of e-TDS returns.)



TDS defaults

Failure to deduct the whole or part of the Tax at source( non-deduction, short deduction or delay in deduction)

1. Failure to deposit whole or part of the TDS (non-deposit, short deposit or late deposit)

2. Failure to apply for TAN within the prescribed time limit or failure to quote TAN on allotment as required under section 203A.

3. Failure to furnish, in due time, TDS returns or TDS certificates or to deliver or cause to be delivered a copy of declaration in form no. 27C /copy of quarterly statement.

4. Failure to mention the PAN of the deductee in all quarterly statements as well as in all certificates furnished.

Consequences of Defaults

The following chart indicates the nature of default and its consequences which range from penal interest, penalty to prosecution:

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In addition to the above, there are other consequences in certain cases, as enumerated below;

▬   Disallowance of specified expenditure (while computing the income of the deductor) if TDS is not deducted from the payment. (Section 40a(ia)).

▬   Where the tax has not been paid after it deduction it shall be charge on the asset of the defaulter to recover the amount of TDS. (section 201(2)).   



What is TCS?

The seller has to collect tax from the payer who has purchased the following items :

The TCS on the above mentioned items vary from 1% to 5%

Deposit of TCS amount- within seven days of the following month.

Issue of TCS certificate- within in one month of collection /debit(form 27D)



Please note :

1. All the rates for deduction of Tax at source and other  provisions are applicable for the A.Y. 2010-11(F.Y. 2009-10) only.

2.The information given above is to convey the general understanding of TDS and TCS provisions. For detailed information Income Tax Act 1961 may be consulted. The changes in the Act may be incorporated in the information as and when required.


Various Online Services of Income Tax Department

The Income Tax Department (ITD) as a part of its citizen centric activities is providing a host of online services to the taxpayers services through various websites so that a taxpayer can fulfil his routine tax obligations.

Following services are being provided:

(i)  Dissemination of tax related information through websites

(ii) Dissemination of taxpayer specific information

(iii) PAN and TAN related services

(iv) e-filing of returns of income

(v) e-payment of taxes

(vi) e-filing of TDS returns



Dissemination of tax related information


Information about tax laws, procedures etc. is now available on various websites.



·      These sites contain -

* Acts and Rules

* Procedures

* Circulars & Notifications

* Rates of tax

* Deductions & exemptions

* Jurisdictions

* FAQs

* Downloadable Forms

* Guidelines and Return preparation software for e-filing of income tax returns.

* Facility for filing of e-returns

* Guidelines and Return preparation software for e-filing of TDS returns.

* Facility for direct upload of TDS returns

* Various internet based views for giving feedback to taxpayers

·     E-Tutorials available at



Dissemination of taxpayer specific information





 PAN related services

Applications for allotment of PAN or for changes in PAN data can be made to NSDL or UTIISL who have set up facilities in over 500 cities for receiving PAN applications.

Filing applications online

PAN applications can be filed on line at and


Tracking PAN applications

Status of PAN applications can be tracked respectively at and


Online application for new PAN cards or corrections in PAN

Applications for new PAN cards can be filed on line at and

Know your PAN


Facilitates verification of PAN allotted to taxpayer. Available at




TAN related services

Applications for allotment of TAN or for changes in TAN data can be made to NSDL who have set up TIN Facilitation Centres in over 500 cities for receiving TAN applications.


Filing TAN applications online

TAN applications can be filed on line at


TrackingTAN applications

Status of TAN applications/application for changes in TAN data can be tracked at


'Know your TAN'

The deductor can know the TAN allotted to him at 

Online application for corrections in TAN data

Applications for correction in TAN data can be filed on line at

 Grievance handling with Call Centre support for PAN/TAN related services:




•Tax deposits take place at over 13,000 branches of 33 designated banks throughout the country

• Banks imprint a unique Challan Identification Number (CIN) on each challan

• Facility provided for online payment, and viewing status of tax payment

• Over 2 crore tax payment transactions per year


e-Payment of Taxes





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Facilities for e-filing of TDS returns

TAN Registration

I.TAN Registration available at

II.Authenticated deductors-

i.View of the status of all statements filed;

ii.Download of consolidated quarterly e-TDS / TCS statement for preparation of correction statement; and

iii.Special functionalities related to quarterly TDS /TCS statement.

III.   Registration is free.



1.1 Feedback to Deductors

I. Through the TAN Based View details of all challans deposited in the banks for a given




1.2 Feedback to Deductors

Through CIN Based View details of any  particular challan can be verified.  

View of tax payments made in banks


This facility allows the taxpayer to verify the tax payment made by him through the website of Tax Information Network (TIN) at Feedback is given through the following:

Internet based feedback at







SMS based update of challan status

*  Send SMS to 575758

*  SMS to contain

* The word CSI followed by space and CIN (BSR code, tender date, challan serial no.)

* Amount is optional

* CIN and amount should be comma separated

* Eg. CSI 0510001,11032009,5,5000

Status will display

* TAN / PAN 

* Whether amount matched or not

* Received in TIN (date)


2.Status of TDS/ TCS Statements:

Deductor/collector can view this online at against TAN and Provisional Receipt Number (PRN), under the link Quarterly Statement Status available at





If statement is accepted, deductor can also check  





If statement is rejected

 Reason for rejection can be viewed






Online view of Refund Status

* Taxpayers can view the status of refunds on

* Taxpayer required to give PAN and Assessment Year for which refund status is to be viewed.

 * Taxpayer given details of mode of payment, status and date of payment .




View of Tax Credit Statements (Form 26AS) online


(requiring one time registration)


What can be seen:

 Tax Credit Statement view offers:

v  Details of tax deducted/collected at source by deductors /collectors.

v  Advance tax / Self Assessment tax / Regular Assessment tax, etc.

v  Details of "Paid Refunds" from Financial Year 2009-10 onwards.

 Benefits of Form 26AS

v  Once tax credit is reflected in the statement, no need for TDS certificates.

v  Enables view of all financial transactions involving TDS/TCS during the relevant Financial Year at one place.

v  Helps in claim of tax credits and computation of income at the time of filing of return of income.

v  Seamless processing of Income Tax Return and speedy credit of refunds

v  Verification of Refunds encashed during the Financial Year.

v Verification of CIN in non-TDS payments.



  1. Circular No.1 on TDS on Salary-2010


Format of Forms

Blank Forms alongwith guidelines (MS-Excel format) 

1. Form 24

2. Form 26

3. Form 27

6. Form 27E


Forms (PDF format)

1. Form 24

2. Form 26

3. Form 27

4. Form 27A

5. Form 27B

6. Form 27E

7. Form 49B (TAN)


Challan 281

Frequently Asked Questions:

1.What is TDS?

TDS means Tax Deducted at Source. It is the amount withheld from payments of various kinds such as salary, contract payment, commission etc. This withheld amount can be adjusted against your tax due.


2.In case the deductee comes back stating that the original TDS certificate is lost, whether a duplicate certificate can be issued?

Yes. The deductor will have to issue the certificate in a plain paper giving necessary details of deduction and remittance.


3.I have made some deposits with a bank on which annual interest is around Rs.15000. My income is below taxable limit. The banker wants to deduct tax. What do I do?

You can file a self-declaration to the banker in form 15H stating that your income is below taxable limit. The form is available with your banker, the local Income-Tax office and can be downloaded from the website This form should be filed before the interests begin to accrue in the fixed deposit account, since the declaration has no retrospective effect.


4.I have let out a property for Rs.20,000 per month. The tenant is deducting tax that is more than my tax liability. What can I do under this circumstance?

If you compute your tax liability and find it to be lower than the tax being deducted, you may approach your assessing officer by filing Form 13. He will issue a certificate directing the tenant to make TDS at a lesser rate. This form is available with the local Income tax office or can be downloaded from the website


5.I have deducted tax from payments disbursed but used the same for some urgent financial needs. What are the consequences?

It is an offence to misuse the tax deducted at source. It should have been remitted to government account within the time allowed. The failure attracts tax, interest, penalty and also rigorous imprisonment up to seven years


6.What can I do if I am unable to get the TDS certificate [form-16 or 16A]?

It is the duty of every person deducting tax to issue TDS certificate. In spite of your asking if you are denied the certificate then there is a chance that the tax deducted has not been deposited by the deductor to the government account. Please inform the department [PRO or TDS section] which will then do the needful.


7.I have not received TDS certificate from my employer. Can I claim TDS deducted from my salary?

Yes. The claim can be made in your return. Department however will raise a demand which will not be enforced on you but on your employer.


8.If the employer does not deduct tax and employee also does not pay his due tax, who will be held responsible for tax payment?

The ultimate responsibility to pay tax rests on the person who has earned income. If the employee deposits such tax then the employer will be liable for interest and penalty for failure to deduct tax.


9.I am buying a property from a person residing in USA. Should I deduct tax while making payment?

Yes u/s 195. In case you have any doubt regarding the amount on which TDS is to be made, you may file an application with the officer handling non-resident taxation who will pass an order determining the TDS to be made. Alternatively, if the recipient feels that the TDS is more he may file an application with his Assessing officer for non-deduction.


10.Can I use PAN to pay the TDS deducted into government account?

No. You are required to take a separate Tax Deduction Account Number [TAN] by making an application in form 49B with the Tin facilitation center of NSDL.




The information given in this web portal is to convey the general understanding of TDS and TCS provisions. For detailed information Income Tax Act 1961 may be consulted. The changes in the Act may be incorporated in the information as and when required.